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CREATINE

Health Benefits of Creatine for your brain

Creatine the natural nootropic

Creatine (α-methyl guanidine-acetic acid) is a substance naturally produced in the body from three amino acids, and it helps your body to produce energy for your body and brain. Creatine can be thought of as brain fuel and all body fuel as it supports the production of energy in every single cell in your body.

Creatine is among the most well-researched and effective natural compounds. It has been researched for more than 200 years, and numerous studies support its safety for long-term use.

It can be naturally found in animal protein, especially beef and fish, but thankfully it is also available in supplement form which is far more convenient for daily use. 

While most people hear the word “creatine” and think of how amazing it is for the body and muscles, but it also plays a very significant role in brain function, and it is considered a nootropic. Tim Ferris (well known as the author of The 4-Hour Workweek. A biohacker and productivity enthusiast) loves creatine as the most important nootropic for his productivity hacks as seen on his favourite smart drugs here.

How does Creatine help my brain?

Since 2003, the evidence for the mental benefits of creatine have been dramatically growing every year. Arguably the most widely studied and used supplement in the world for brain health, creatine is known for its ability to improve performance.

Having creating regularly has been shown to increase natural levels of creatine in the brain by 5 to 15%, which can improve several areas of brain function. This is because of better energy supply for the brain and increased oxygen delivery which gives your brain the nutrients it needs to thrive. 

Better brain energy from creatine means faster processing and better overall mental performance. Creatine can significantly enhance cognition and delay mental fatigue. Creatine may also aid brain function by increasing dopamine levels and mitochondrial function.

Because creatine is an essential nutrient, vegans and vegetarians can benefit from it too. Plant-based eaters often miss out on creatine since most sources are found in animal products. Adding creatine to a plant-based diet has been shown to improve working memory and intelligence in vegans and vegetarians.

Savvy only uses Creapure ®, the purest creatine monohydrate available with over 95% absorption rate. 

 Creatine Fast Facts

  • Creatine is hands down is the most well researched and effective supplement, and is safe and has A LOT of benefits. 
  • Creatine improves cognitive functioning and overall brain performance including memory, processing speed, logical reasoning and problem solving
  • Creatine directly affects the energy of each cell in your body through helping form ATP (the energy fuel of your cells).
  • Brain cells have a very large energy requirement, and simply put, the more creatine in your brain cells, the better and faster your brain will work.

  • Creatine can significantly enhance cognition, can improve mood and delay mental fatigue.

  • Creatine reduces cognitive decline as you age with neuroprotective effects.

Creatine can give your brain a boost and help you to do more, feel better, and stress less!  

How does creatine work?

Creatine works by storing high-energy phosphate groups in the form of phosphocreatine. Phosphocreatine aids the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the key molecule your cells use for energy and all basic life functions. This role in energy production is particularly relevant under conditions of high energy demand such as intense physical or mental activity.

Research demonstrates that your brain requires a significant amount of ATP when performing difficult tasks. Cells with larger energy requirements, like neurons rely heavily on energy transport, which is why creatine is naturally found across the brain. Supplementing with it improves the efficacy of its use. In other words, the more creatine in your brain, the better your brain works.

Main benefits for Savvy Brain Boosting Beverages:

  • Creatine increases energy levels
  • Greatly improves short term and long term memory
  • Improves cognitive functioning and overall brain performance including processing speed, logical reasoning and problem solving
  • Improves mood and resists fatigue
  • Reduces cognitive decline as you age with neuroprotective effects

Benefits of creatine

THE SCIENCE AND THE EVIDENCE PROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF CREATINE

We will now delve into the scientific evidence behind the benefits of this amazing natural compound. For each scientific resource, at Savvy, we have referenced the study, linked to it and also provided an interesting quote from the study. Occasionally, we will also provide further commentary on the study. 

To make it easy to identify all the different studies - we will highlight them for you!   

We really hope you enjoy our many years of research when formulating Savvy...

Scientifically proven benefits of creatine:

Creatine increases energy production

creatine increases energy

Creatine works on the brain in a very similar fashion to the way it does on muscle. Creatine, stored as creatine phosphate in the body, is taken up by neurons (brain cells).This explains why creatine, which increases the amount of phosphate available, provides increased energy stores for the brain. Creatine is particularly important since it replenishes ATP (a cellular unit of energy) without relying on oxygen.

Scientific Research and Sources:

Benton, D, and Donohoe, R, ‘The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores.’ in The British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 105, Issue 7, April 2011, pp 1100 - 1105. [Link]

 

“Creatine when combined with P forms phosphocreatine that acts as a reserve of high-energy phosphate.”

 

Negro, M, et al, ‘Creatine in Skeletal Muscle Physiology’ in Nonvitamin and Nonmineral Nutritional Supplements, Academic Press, 2019, pp 59 - 68 [Link]

 

“Creatine is ... able to influence muscle biochemical processes involved in energy production and recovery from exercise. In several experimental conditions the potential of creatine supplementation on anaerobic and aerobic performance has been extensively established. Other evidence suggests that creatine may exert beneficial effects to increase muscle hypertrophy and to reduce muscle damage by regulating various mechanisms, such as muscle fiber gene expression, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and satellite cell activity.”

 

Saks, VA, et al, ‘Role of the creatine/phosphocreatine system in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration.’ in Acta physiologica Scandinavica, Volume 168, Issue 4, April 2000, pp 635 - 641. [Link]

 

“Thus, on the basis of the study in silico of compartmentalized energy transfer by phophocreatine/creatine system, the authors conclude that there exist multiple parallel regulatory factors controlling the rate of oxygen consumption in dependence of the workload.”

The above study indicates that creatine improves the ability for energy to become readily available for times of high workload or stress.

 

Persky, AM and Brazeau, GA. ‘Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate.’in Pharmacology reviews, Volume 53, Issue 2, June 2001, pp 161 - 176. [Link

 

“When supplemented with exogenous creatine, intramuscular and cerebral stores of creatine and its phosphorylated form, phosphocreatine, become elevated. The increase of these stores can offer therapeutic benefits by preventing ATP depletion, stimulating protein synthesis or reducing protein degradation, and stabilizing biological membranes. Evidence from the exercise literature has shown athletes benefit from supplementation by increasing muscular force and power, reducing fatigue in repeated bout activities, and increasing muscle mass. ”

 

Tarnopolsky, MA, ‘Potential benefits of creatine monohydrate supplementation in the elderly.’ in Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care, Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2000, pp 497 - 502. [Link]

 

“Creatine plays a role in cellular energy metabolism and potentially has a role in protein metabolism. Creatine monohydrate supplementation has been shown to result in an increase in skeletal muscle total and phosphocreatine concentration, increase fat-free mass, and enhance high-intensity exercise performance in young healthy men and women. Recent evidence has also demonstrated a neuroprotective effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation…”

 

Dangott B, et al ‘Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation increases satellite cell mitotic activity during compensatory hypertrophy.’ in International journal of sports science, Volume 21, Issue 1, January 2000, pp 13 - 16. [Link]

 

“Creatine supplementation in combination with an increased functional load results in increased satellite cell mitotic activity.”
There are many advantages of increased satellite cell signalling through creatine supplementation.

 

Dechent P, et al ‘Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate.’ in The American journal of physiology, Volume 277, Issue 3, September 1999, pp 698 - 704. [Link]

 

Walsh, B, et al, ‘The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle.’ in The journal of physiology, Volume 15, Issue 537 (pt3), December 2001, pp 971 - 978. [Link]

 

Creatine improves cognitive functioning and overall brain performance including memory, processing speed, logical reasoning and problem solving

creatine improves cognitive function

Avgerinos, Konstantinos. I, et al.  ‘Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials’. Experimental gerontology. Volume 108. 2018. Pp. 166-173. [Link]

The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of oral creatine administration on cognitive function in healthy individuals. Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefits for aging and stressed individuals.

 

Dolan, E, et al. 'Beyond muscle: the effects of creatine supplementation on brain creatine, cognitive processing, and traumatic brain injury'. European Journal Of Sport Science. Volume 19, Issue 1, 2019. pp 1 - 14. [Link

"The ergogenic and therapeutic effects of increasing muscle creatine by supplementation are well-recognized. It appears that similar benefits to brain function and cognitive processing may also be achieved with creatine supplementation"

 

Yar, Razia Allah, et al. Creatine monohydrate supplementation for 10 weeks mediates neuroprotection and improves learning/memory following neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy in female albino mice. brain research. Volume 595. 2015. Pp. 92-100. [Link]

This study was conducted to determine the effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation on newborn albino mice suffering from cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. It was found that Cr supplementation had significantly improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in subjects. Mice supplemented with 3% Cr for 10 weeks performed better while 1% Cr supplementation improved the exploratory behavior and gain in body weight than the control group indicating that Cr supplementation has the potential to improve the neurofunction following neonatal brain damage.

 

Iqbal, Shahid, et al. ‘Long term creatine monohydrate supplementation, following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult, improves neuromuscular coordination and spatial learning in male albino mouse’. Brain research. Volume 1603. 2015. Pp. 76-83. [Link]

This study was designed to demonstrate the effect of long term (15 week) supplementation of 2% creatine monohydrate (Cr), following neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) insult, on learning and memory formation in male albino mice. It was observed that HI mice fed on 2% Cr for 15 weeks performed better, inferring improved learning, memory and neuro-muscular coordination.

Machek, Steven. B., and Bagley, James. R. ‘Creatine monohydrate supplementation: considerations for cognitive performance in athletes’. Strength & Conditioning Journal. Volume 40. Issue 2. 2018. Pp. 82-93. [Link]

“Creatine monohydrate supplementation can be viewed as a general nootropic, a compound used to enhance cognitive functions, tested for improvements among subjects regarding cognitive assessments of memory, focus, and/or attention”

Rae, C, et al, ‘Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.’ in Proceedings of the royal society, biological sciences, Volume 270, Issue 1529, October 2003, pp 2147 - 2150. [Link]

“Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate... In this work, we tested the hypothesis that oral creatine supplementation (5 g d(-1) for six weeks) would enhance intelligence test scores and working memory performance in 45 young adult, vegetarian subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.”

 

Creatine supplement for memory and intelligence

The above gold-standard study with double-blind, placebo-controlled and cross-over trialling shows improvement in working memory, processing speed and creative intelligence.

This shows the huge benefit creatine can have on working memory, processing speed and creative intelligence. Which are all crucial in functions of nootropics you need in today's world.

 

Dechent, P, et al, ‘Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate.’ in The American journal of physiology, Volume 277, Issue 3, September 1990, pp 698 - 704. [Link]

 

The above study shows how over a 4 week period of 5g daily creatine consumption can greatly increase brain metabolite concentrations of creatine, allowing for increased mental energy.

 

“A regional analysis resulted in significant increases of tCr in gray matter (4.7%), white matter (11.5%), and cerebellum (5.4%) and was most pronounced in thalamus (14.6% corresponding to 1.0 mM). Other findings were significant decreases of N-acetyl-containing compounds in cerebellum and thalamus as well as of choline-containing compounds in thalamus. All cerebral metabolic alterations caused by oral Cr were reversible, as evidenced by control measurements at least 3 mo after the diet.”

 

McMorris T, et al. ‘Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals.’ Journal of Neuropsychology, Development and Cognition, Volume 14, Issue 7, September 2007, pp 517 - 528. [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17828627]

  

Scientific evidence for creatine for memory

“Results showed a significant effect on memory of creatine supplementation on all tasks except backward number recall. It was concluded that creatine supplementation aids cognition...”

 

Avgerinos, KI, et al, ‘Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.’ in Experimental gerontology, Volume 15, Issue 108, July 2018, pp 166 - 173. [Link]

 

“Oral creatine administration may improve short-term memory and intelligence/reasoning of healthy individuals but its effect on other cognitive domains remains unclear. Findings suggest potential benefit for aging and stressed individuals.”

 

Andres, RH, et al, ‘Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system.” in Brain research bulletin, Volume 76, Issue 4, July 2008, pp 329 - 343. [Link]

 

“the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system plays a key role in cellular energy buffering and energy transport, particularly in cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements like neurons. Creatine kinases are expressed in the adult and developing human brain and spinal cord, suggesting that the creatine kinase/phosphocreatine system plays a significant role in the central nervous system”

 

The above study showcases the assistance of creatine potentiating the energy of brain cells and allowing for fast processing speeds.

 

Benton, D, and Donohoe, R, ‘The influence of creatine supplementation on the cognitive functioning of vegetarians and omnivores.’ in The British Journal of Nutrition, Volume 105, Issue 7, April 2011, pp 1100 - 1105. [Link]

 

“Creatine when combined with P forms phosphocreatine that acts as a reserve of high-energy phosphate...Creatine supplementation influences brain functioning as indicated by imaging studies and the measurement of oxygenated Hb...creatine supplementation resulted in better memory. Irrespective of dietary style, the supplementation of creatine decreased the variability in the responses to a choice reaction-time task.”

 

Rae, C, et al, ‘Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.’ in Proceedings of the royal society, biological sciences, Volume 270, Issue 1529, October 2003, pp 2147 - 2150. [Link]

 

“Creatine plays a pivotal role in brain energy homeostasis, being a temporal and spatial buffer for cytosolic and mitochondrial pools of the cellular energy currency, adenosine triphosphate and its regulator, adenosine diphosphate... In this work, we tested the hypothesis that oral creatine supplementation (5 g d(-1) for six weeks) would enhance intelligence test scores and working memory performance in 45 young adult, vegetarian subjects in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. Creatine supplementation had a significant positive effect (p < 0.0001) on both working memory (backward digit span) and intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices), both tasks that require speed of processing. These findings underline a dynamic and significant role of brain energy capacity in influencing brain performance.”

 

Creatine supplements can improve brain function for those with low creatine levels. The above study tested vegetarians, who often have lower levels because they do not eat meat, which is the main dietary source of creatine.

 

Avgerinos, KI, et al, ‘Effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function of healthy individuals: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials’ in Experimental Gerontology, Volume 108, July 2018, pp 166 - 173. [Link]

 

“Six studies (281 individuals) met our inclusion criteria. Generally, there was evidence that short term memory and intelligence/reasoning may be improved by creatine administration.”

 

McMorris, T, et al, ‘Creatine supplementation, sleep deprivation, cortisol, melatonin and behavior.’ in Psychology & Behavior, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2007, pp 21-28. [Link]

 

“The creatine group demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) linear improvement in performance of the central executive task throughout the experiment, while the placebo group showed no significant effects.”

 

In the study, above, people were examined after sleep deprivation, and creatine assisted with helping them perform with improved cognitive function. As most people are somewhat sleep deprived throughout the working-week, this is an essential supplement.

 

McMorris, T, et al, ‘Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.’ in Psychopharmacology (Berl), Volume 185, Issue 1, March 2006, pp 93 - 130. [Link]

 

“Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex. At 24 h, the creatine group demonstrated significantly less change in performance from 0 h (delta) in RMG, choice reaction time, balance and mood state. There were no significant differences between groups in plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations were significantly higher at 24 h than 0 h, but cortisol were lower.”

 

The study above shows that creatine has a positive effect on mood, and mental tasks that require a lot of thinking - verbal and spatial recall, choice reaction time.

 

Ling J, et al, ‘Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation.’ in Behavioural pharmacology, Volume 20, issue 8, December 2009, pp 673 - 679. [Link]

“...investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures”

 

The above study in 2009 showed that creatine is capable of increasing IQ, attention span and working memory. 

Creatine improves mood and resists fatigue

creatine improves mood

Creatine is effective at preventing cognitive fatigue after strenuous mental activity, as well as it delays physical fatigue after exercise. It also has a positive effect on mood state.

 

Scientific sources:

 

Van Cutsem, Jerone, et al. ‘Can creatine combat the mental fatigue-associated decrease in visuomotor skills’. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Volume 52. 2020. Pp. 120-130. [Link]

This study evaluated whether creatine supplementation counteracts the mental fatigue-associated impairment in sport-specific psychomotor skills. Creatine supplementation improved physical and prolonged cognitive performance, yet it did not combat MF-induced impairments in short sport-specific psychomotor or cognitive performance. These results warrant further investigation in the potential role of creatine in combating the MF-associated decrements in prolonged sport performance and suggest a role of brain phosphocreatine in MF.

 

McMorris, T, et al, ‘Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.’ in Psychopharmacology, Volume 185, Issue 1, March 2006, pp 93 - 103. [Link]

 

“Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on cognitive and psychomotor performance and mood state, partially due to decreases in creatine levels in the brain. Therefore, creatine supplementation should lessen the negative effects of sleep deprivation. Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.”

 

Smith, RN, et al, ‘A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes’ in F1000 Research, Published online September 2014. [Link

 

“In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder.”

 

Watanabe, A, et al, ‘Effects of creatine on mental fatigue and cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation.’ in Neuroscience research, Volume 42, Issue 4, April 2002, pp 279 - 285. [Link]

 

“While the role of creatine in preventing muscle (peripheral) fatigue for high performance athletes is well understood, its biochemical role in prevention of mental (central) fatigue is not. Creatine is abundant in muscles and the brain and after phosphorylation used as an energy source for adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Using double-blind placebo-controlled paradigm, we demonstrated that dietary supplement of creatine (8 g/day for 5 days) reduces mental fatigue when subjects repeatedly perform a simple mathematical calculation. After taking the creatine supplement, task-evoked increase of cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin in the brains of subjects measured by near infrared spectroscopy was significantly reduced, which is compatible with increased oxygen utilization in the brain.”

 

The above “gold standard” study showed that the young, healthy volunteers tested, that took creatine did a lot better on the tests (showcasing I.Q increase, and working memory) while also showing significantly less signs of fatigue compared to the placebo group.

 

Smith, RN, et al, ‘A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes’ in F1000 Research, Published online September 2014. [Link

 

“In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder.”

 

Smith, AE, ‘Effects of creatine loading on electromyographic fatigue threshold during cycle ergometry in college-aged women.’ in Journal of the international society of Sports Nutrition, Volume 4, Issue 20, November 2007. [Link]

 

“These findings suggest that 5 days of Cr loading in women may be an effective strategy for delaying the onset of neuromuscular fatigue during cycle ergometry.”

 

Rawson, ES, et al, ‘Low-dose creatine supplementation enhances fatigue resistance in the absence of weight gain.’ in Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles Country, California), Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 451 - 455. [Link]

 

“Ingesting a low dose of creatine for 6 wk significantly increased plasma creatine concentration and enhanced resistance to fatigue...”

 

Hadjicharalambous M, et al, ‘Brain serotonin and dopamine modulators, perceptual responses and endurance performance during exercise in the heat following creatine supplementation.’ in Journal of the international society of Sports Nutrition, Volume 5, Issue 14, September 2008. [Link]

 

“The present experiment examined the responses of peripheral modulators and indices of brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function and their association with perception of effort during prolonged exercise in the heat after creatine (Cr) supplementation.Although Cr influenced key modulators of brain 5-HT and DA function and reduced various thermophysiological parameters which all may have contributed to the reduced effort perception during exercise in the heat, performance was improved only in the "responders" to Cr supplementation”

 

McMorris, T, et al, ‘Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.’ in Psychopharmacology (Berl), Volume 185, Issue 1, March 2006, pp 93 - 130. [Link

 

“Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex. At 24 h, the creatine group demonstrated significantly less change in performance from 0 h (delta) in RMG, choice reaction time, balance and mood state. There were no significant differences between groups in plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol. Norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations were significantly higher at 24 h than 0 h, but cortisol were lower.”

 

The study above shows that creatine has a positive effect on mood, and mental tasks that require a lot of thinking - verbal and spatial recall, choice reaction time.

 

Rawson, ES and Venezia AC, ‘Use of creatine in the elderly and evidence for effects on cognitive function in young and old’ in Amino Acids, Volume 40, issue 5, May 2011, pp 1349 - 1362. [Link]

 

“Creatine is an inexpensive and safe dietary supplement that has both peripheral and central effects. The benefits afforded to older adults through creatine ingestion are substantial, can improve quality of life, and ultimately may reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia and cognitive dysfunction.”

 

McMorris, T, et al, ‘Effect of creatine supplementation and sleep deprivation, with mild exercise, on cognitive and psychomotor performance, mood state, and plasma concentrations of catecholamines and cortisol.’ in Psychopharmacology, Volume 185, Issue 1, March 2006, pp 93 - 103. [Link]

 

“Sleep deprivation has a negative effect on cognitive and psychomotor performance and mood state, partially due to decreases in creatine levels in the brain. Therefore, creatine supplementation should lessen the negative effects of sleep deprivation. Following 24-h sleep deprivation, creatine supplementation had a positive effect on mood state and tasks that place a heavy stress on the prefrontal cortex.”

 

Creatine reduces cognitive decline as you age with neuroprotective effects

creatine improves cognitive function as you age

Many researchers believe that creatine supplements are a bulwark against neurological diseases when used alongside conventional medicines.

Scientific Sources:

Persky, AM and Brazeau, GA. ‘Clinical pharmacology of the dietary supplement creatine monohydrate ’in Pharmacology reviews, Volume 53, Issue 2, June 2001, pp 161 - 176. [Link]

 

“When supplemented with exogenous creatine, intramuscular and cerebral stores of creatine and its phosphorylated form, phosphocreatine, become elevated. The increase of these stores can offer therapeutic benefits by preventing ATP depletion, stimulating protein synthesis or reducing protein degradation, and stabilizing biological membranes. Evidence from the exercise literature has shown athletes benefit from supplementation by increasing muscular force and power, reducing fatigue in repeated bout activities, and increasing muscle mass. These benefits have been applied to disease models of Huntington's, Parkinson's, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and applied clinically in patients with gyrate atrophy, various neuromuscular disorders, McArdle's disease, and congestive heart failure.”

 

Moon A, et al, ‘Creatine supplementation: can it improve quality of life in the elderly without associated resistance training?’ in Current aging science, Volume 6, Issue 3, December 2013, pp 251 - 257. [Link]

 

“These data indicate that creatine supplementation without associated training in the elderly could potentially delay atrophy of muscle mass, improve endurance and strength, and increase bone strength, and thus may be a safe therapeutic strategy to help decrease loss in functional performance of everyday tasks.”

 

Rae, C, et al, ‘Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.’ in Proceedings of the royal society, biological sciences, Volume 270, Issue 1529, October 2003, pp 2147 - 2150. [Link]

 

“Creatine supplementation is in widespread use to enhance sports-fitness performance, and has been trialled successfully in the treatment of neurological, neuromuscular and atherosclerotic disease.“

 

Kaemmerer, WF, et al, ‘Creatine-supplemented diet extends Purkinje cell survival in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 transgenic mice but does not prevent the ataxic phenotype.’ in Neuroscience, Volume 103, Issue 3, 2001, pp 713 - 724. [Link]

 
“Dietary supplementation with creatine improves survival and motor performance and delays neuronal atrophy”

 

McMorris, T, et al, ‘Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals.’ in Neuropsychology, development, and cognition, Section B, Aging, neuropsychology and cognition. Volume 14, Issue 5, September 2007, pp 517 - 528. [Link]

 

“Results showed a significant effect of creatine supplementation on all tasks except backward number recall. It was concluded that creatine supplementation aids cognition in the elderly.”

 

Matthews, RT, at al, ‘Creatine and cyclocreatine attenuate MPTP neurotoxicity.’ in Experimental neurology, Volume 157, Issue 1, May 1999, pp 142 - 149. [Link]

 

“Oral supplementation with creatine or cyclocreatine, which are substrates for creatine kinase, may increase phosphocreatine (PCr) or cyclophosphocreatine (PCCr) and buffer against ATP depletion and thereby exert neuroprotective effects.”

 

Smith, RN, et al, ‘A review of creatine supplementation in age-related diseases: more than a supplement for athletes’ in F1000 Research, Published online September 2014. [Link]

 

“In relation to the brain, creatine has been shown to have antioxidant properties, reduce mental fatigue, protect the brain from neurotoxicity, and improve facets/components of neurological disorders like depression and bipolar disorder. The combination of these benefits has made creatine a leading candidate in the fight against age-related diseases, such as Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, long-term memory impairments associated with the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke.”

 

Tarnopolsky, MA, and Beal, MF, ‘Potential for creatine and other therapies targeting cellular energy dysfunction in neurological disorders.’ in Annals of neurology, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 561 - 574. [Link]

 

“Substantial evidence indicates that bioenergetic dysfunction plays either a primary or secondary role in the pathophysiology of cell death in neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders, and even in normal aging. Agents that ameliorate bioenergetic defects may therefore be useful in therapy. Creatine, which increases muscle and brain phosphocreatine concentrations, and may inhibit the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition, protects against neuronal degeneration in transgenic murine models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease and in chemically mediated neurotoxicity.”

 

Based on studies like those listed above, Savvy Beverages developed Savvy Brain Boost. It’s a delicious drink with amazing added supplements for daily use to provide long-lasting mental energy, support brain function and enhance cognitive performance.

Each delicious beverage provides a clinical dose of Creatine, to decrease stress and fatigue while boosting focus and improving mood. Savvy also provides complementary herbs, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals with high levels of evidence for cognitive enhancement.